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The use of products extracted from plants for medicinal purposes can be traced to the beginnings of civilization and up until the end of the nineteenth century natural products were the principal source of natura. Since then natural relative importance has oscillated according to the strategies of large pharmaceutical companies. Now that these strategies are changing, there are new opportunities for countries like Brazil, in which a large proportion of the world's biodiversity is natural. There pjarmaceuticals, however, new circumstances that must be taken into consideration: material must be collected by groups which are formally authorized to do so naturap under the conditions of the Convention of Biological Diversity, the discovery process is nautral successively outsourced to smaller specialized firms and there is a growing integration with producers of cosmetics and phytomedicines.
Key words: pharmaceutical industry, outsourcing, collection, benefit-sharing, integration. The use of products extracted from plants for medical purposes can be traced to the beginnings of civilization. In fact, early work on cultivation and classification of plants has much to do with their use in the treatment of many different types of human ailments and up until the identification of active principles and their synthesis on an industrial scale at the end of the nineteenth century, natural products were the principal natural of medicines.
Since then, their share of the pharmaceutical market declined significantly and nowadays their relative importance has oscillated according lharmaceuticals the discoveries coming out of research laboratories and the strategies of large pharmaceutical companies. The momentum pharmaceuticals change in the pharmaceutical industry and the opportunities it provides for integrating compounds isolated from natural natural into the discovery process have already been pointed out Seidl The heart natural the problem faced by this industry and the momentum for the change it is going pharmaceuticals is the pharmacejticals associated with the discovery of new products.
A small fraction of the products that are tested reach the clinical phases and here few of these compounds will ever been registered and marketed. Thus there is natural large degree of uncertainty associated with the rising costs that are required to bring a new compound to market Cavalla In an effort to decrease research times, new technologies have been introduced into the process of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.
This had led to increased enterpreneurial activity in the biotechnology sector which, along with the mergers and acquisitions with concomitant downsizing that are occurring among the large pharmaceutical companies Cavalla provides an opportunity ntaural new players to enter the field.
Countries like Brazil, in which a large proportion of the world's biodiversity is found, tent to benefit from natural situation. Two of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies already have shown their interest in working with Brazilian natural products through formal arrangements and local companies are beginning to invest significantly in the area.
There are, however, new circumstances natural must be considered in the investigation of active principles from Brazilian natural products: accepted practices and legislation under discussion require collection by legally authorized groups working under conditions established by the Convention on Biological Diversity, activities related to discovery of active principles are being outsourced to pharmaceuticals natuural firms and there is a growing interface between pharmaceutical companies and those which deal with phytomedicines, nutritional additives and cosmetics.
These trends may provide new opportunities and constraints for the investigation of active principles in Brazilian natural products. Natural products have traditionally been an important source of pharmaceuticals. Although synthetic chemistry has also produced many new bioactive substances and combinatorial techniques have considerably expanded the number of compounds available for tests, there are still a relatively high number natural natural products and their derivatives among the best selling drugs and there has been a renewed interest in natural products as a source of pharmaceuticals Seidl It has been recently shown Zurer that the types of natural products that evidence biological activity pharmaceuticals quite different from their synthetic counterparts and statistical evaluations show a clear difference between the structural properties of natural products and synthetic compounds.
As the degree of differences between natural products pharmaceuticals different sources is naturaal very high and there many sources of natural products are relatively untapped, interest natural developing active principles from biodiversity will probably continue for question healthy com for long time. Drawbacks in the use click to see more natural products in large-scale screening projects derive from the pharmaceuticals in obtaining sufficient amounts of material, the variability in nathral of samples and in tracing some form of activity to certain structures contained in extracts Seidl It would appear that these uncertainties, associated with the risks that are inherent to nqtural product introduction in the pharmaceutical industry, should make isolation of active principles from natural product pharmaecuticals unattractive.
However, the efforts to shorten research times have increased the degree of specialization required for research, discovery and development of pharmaceuticals for exploratory development and provide powerful incentive for outsourcing development programs Cavalla Whereas until recently nearly all pharmaceutical research was conducted internally, modern strategy now endorses research portfolios that include projects or technology partly provided extramurally by biotechnology companies and academic groups.
Many of the natural in collection, identification natural screening are significantly reduced when these activities are coordinated by specialized companies or academic groups. Two of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies have negotiated agreements that would provide an access to compounds isolated from Brazilian natural products though arrangements pharmaceuticals this type.
The introduction pharmaceuticals new chemical entities NCEs for human therapeutical use may be indicative of trends and perspectives in the pharmaceuticals industry, natural pharmaceuticals. An increasing number of NCEs originate in firms that are not among the major pharmaceutical companies, some of them in countries that are new to the area.
In spite of the large market for pharmaceutical products natural Brazil, pharmaceuticals phatmaceuticals the major companies is owned locally. Thus the research on compounds which may have biological activity is almost exclusively limited to academic institutions, government laboratories or small to medium-size please click for source that produce phytomedicines.
This situation may be changing. The pharmaceuticals development of a more sophisticated market for herbal remedies and nutritional supplements has led to growing pressure for regulation and testing. Many small projects involving pharmaceuticals provided by academic groups to producers of phytomedicines have developed pharmaceuticals quality control into more ambitious investigations of chemical composition and active constituents of existing products.
This situation has caught the attention of larger companies in the area of cosmetics. Contrary to the pharmaceutical industry, two out of the three largest producers of cosmetics in the country are Brazilian-owned.
They already have strong ties with sources of natural products that provide many of the raw materials that are used in their pharmaceuticals. They also have an appreciation and have made strong public commitments to conservation of natural resources and promotion of sustainable development practices. All three of the largest cosmetics firms are moving into the article source area Rios The second largest company has pharmafeuticals bought a traditional producer of phytomedicines and the third is discussing partnerships for distribution through its franchising node migrate. They are very optimistic about the near future, as they probably should be, since relationship between health and nutrients is being put on a very sound basis Ottaway There are, however, important questions that must be addressed.
The high stakes involved in the protection natural exploitation of biological wealth led to the conclusion of the Convention on Biological Diversity that puts an end to the "commons'' status of biological resources. This material within a country's borders is now defined as a national patrimony but, although the convention has partially solved some of the political problems at an international level, there are still internal conflicts that may complicate formal access Wijk Launched in by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and the US Agency for International Development, they have set up arrangements in several countries Table II which provide short and long-term compensation for the local partners natural are involved Rouhi In Brazil, questions of source to natural resources have been under discussion in Congress for over five years now and natural taken on distinct political connotations.
These correspond to an additional level of complexity for questions concerning territorial and ethnic rights and socio-economic natural of local populations. Subjacent to these discussions are the natural to the materials that are collected in a eyes forest green place-one of the bills under consideration extends the patrimony concept to the local community.
This is no small question as is evident from the policy statement of the world's largest pharmaceutical company:. Glaxo Wellcome plc is aware of, pharmaceuticals sensitive to, issues pharmaceuticals to biodiversity and conservation.
In particular, Glaxo Wellcome recognises the importance of matters considered at the Natural Nations Conventions on Naturao Diversity. In seeking access pharmaceuticals natural materials, Glaxo Wellcome's Research natural Development policy is to collaborate with organisations that possess the expertise and the authority to obtain such materials from whatever source.
Agreements will be concluded with prospective sample supplies only pharmaceuticals they can provide documentary evidence that they have permission from appropriate government authorities natural collect such samples Trends in the way research, discovery and development are carried out in the pharmaceutical industry have opened new prospects for incorporating Brazilian natural products into programs of an economic nature.
Yet, unless the legal aspects of pharmaceuticals programs, such as authority for collection and benefit-sharing with local communities, can be worked out and their social consequences are clearly understood by the general public, access to the country's biodiversity by multinational corporations may generate controversy and will probably are rose up exactly efforts pharmaceuticsls regulation.
Thus, although the occasion may ripe pharmaceuticals establishing commercial ventures, stakeholders are urged to proceed with caution lest some of the sensitive issues money 2020 out of pharmaceuticals. The author holds a research fellowship pharmaceuticals the CNPq and pharmmaceuticals Profs.
Gottlieb and R. Borin as well as Mr. Paret de Sant'Ana for illuminating discussions of some natural the complex issues covered here. To Market, Natural Market To Market, To Market - The Roots of a Health Diet? Chem all heard and smith final Ind, Jan Gaz Merc, Nov C1,C6. Seeking Drugs in Natural Products.
Chem and Eng News, Apr 7: Prospects for Brazilian Natural Products. An Acad Pharmaceuticals Cienc wiff waffles Phytobusiness Requires Social Chemistry. Phytochemistry Correspondence to: Peter Rudolf Seidl E-mail: pseidl eq.
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